1.1 The current library book circulation management system and existing problems
At present, the traditional book circulation management of China’s libraries all adopt magnetic stripes and bar code systems, magnetic stripes are security and anti-theft functions, and bar codes are collection identification functions. The main problems with the management system are:
It is difficult to arrange and arrange the frame, and the labor intensity is high
Book search and collection inventory are cumbersome and time-consuming
Audiovisual readings are difficult to circulate
The magnetic stripe is easily demagnetized, and the anti-theft effect is poor
The degree of automation is low, and the management lacks humanization
1.2 Application of RFID in library circulation management
The emergence of RFID technology has greatly improved the speed of data collection, especially in the process of movement to achieve fast, efficient and safe information reading and storage, and has the unique identity of the information carrier, these characteristics determine the wide application of RFID technology in the library field.
In the field of libraries in developed countries and regions such as Europe and the United States, the use of RFID tags to track and manage books, video tapes and other collections is becoming more and more common, and countries in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and other Asian regions also began to use RFID book systems a few years ago, the first RFID in China The book application system has been put into use in the new Shenzhen Library, which opened in July, which marks the official landing of the RFID book digital identification system in the field of Libraries in China.
2. RFID Library Solution
2.1 What is RFID
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). ) is the use of radio frequency technology to identify goods, it has recycling, shelf, shelf and anti-theft functions, while it also has more advantages than barcodes, it can replace or supplement existing barcodes. When labor costs need to be taken into account, such as borrowing and returning procedures, collections, shelves, shelves, management information systems, etc., RFID can be more efficient than traditional library barcodes.
RFID is a microelectronics technology based on the combination of radio frequency technology. Information on library library materials is stored on labels with miniature wafers, while radio frequency technology is used for information exchange.
2.2 Why rf IDs
are used in many libraries today, because the size of the library staff is constantly changing and the materials are growing, so that the workload of receiving, transporting, sorting and racking is increasing, resulting in librarians busy moving books rather than book management.
RFID provides an automated solution to this problem, freeing librarians from most of the above tedious work and allowing librarians to return to formal library management services. At the same time, the use of RFID will reduce the communication time of logistics and information flow, the most significant savings are: RFID tags can be read much faster than barcodes, and RFID systems can also read multiple tags at the same time.
2.3 Technical specifications
Barcodes must use visible light, that is, lamps or lasers must be able to read the barcode to obtain information, and because the bar code instrument can only read information one by one item, resulting in the borrowing and returning procedures are complicated and cumbersome to consume more time. RFID readers, on the other hand, can read multiple items at the same time, making the library’s work more efficient.
2.3.2 How RFID Works
Each RFID tag has a non-powered antenna that can be exchanged by a powered antenna (belonging to an RFID scanner or reader on a security gate).
RFID readers emit electromagnetic waves, while tag antennas can receive these electromagnetic waves. When the tag antenna enters the RF (radio frequency) range, this RF region established from the reader will power the tag’s microchip circuitry. The wafer then regulates the electromagnetic waves so that the tag can send the information back to the reader. The reader converts the signal received from the tag into digital data and sends it to a computer for processing.
There are two kinds of tags that are generally applied to library systems: standard tags and CD/DVD tags.
Standard labels are generally used in books, magazines or on videotapes (mostly directly on the windows of the videos), but also on the boxes of CDs and DVDs. RFID tags are not used directly on tapes, not only for economic reasons, but also for better affixed to the tape’s packaging box.
CD/DVD labels are some circular labels that are primarily used for CDs and DVDs. Because the surface of CDs and DVDs is made of metal, and metal affects the use of ordinary labels, the round labels will be pasted in the inner circle of CDs and DVDs, and CDs The inner ring is non-metallic.
The library app’s label also has another unique feature, the EAS anti-theft function at 106 kHz: the label has a set EAS anti-theft bit (the book has been borrowed is set to “1). “, the unlisted book formalities are set to “0”), when passing through the safety gate, the reader inside the safety door does not need to excite the signal to directly read the EAS anti-theft bit, that is, TTF type mode. Therefore, when the book passes the security gate, it can complete the security inspection without verifying with the background database, the detection speed is fast, and it can maintain an induction rate of more than 95% no matter how many targets are within the scope of the system. Other systems provide labels that use RTF mode, i.e. the mode in which the reader excites the label, which has a sensitivity rate of only 70% or less.
2.3.3 RFID Standards There are two related
ISO standards in library RFID systems: ISO 15693 and 18000-3. ISO18000-3 is the standard for reading and writing passive labels at 13.56 MHz. The label has a 256-bit memory mode that includes four data modules, each of which can be locked independently. The bibliographic identification number is the only identification of the book in the database, which is written into the label, and it is only necessary to extract the identification number of the bibliography in the label, and all the information of the bibliography can be obtained from the database very quickly and efficiently.
RFID devices generally require the use of the SIP2 protocol to facilitate the exchange of information with library management systems. The RFID system must be able to communicate information effectively with the library’s Library Integrated Application System (ILS) to verify that the user is a valid user who exceeds the library’s limits and that the borrowed items are licensed. Information on borrowing or returning books also needs to be transmitted back to the library management system.
RFID hardware does not cause any interference with today’s security systems, personal computers, telephones, or other electronic devices. RFID systems are also not harmful to the human body, including hearing aids or pacemakers. RFID hardware also does not affect objects with any magnetic media, including library cards, credit cards, videotapes, etc.
2.4 Library RFID Features
2.4.1 Self-service borrowing and book return functions
Use RFID The borrowing system makes it easy for readers to self-borrow books out of the library. Readers can use the self-service borrowing system that is much faster than the original bar code to lend multiple books at once, and there is no need to put the books in a standard position like the bar code system, so that the reader’s borrowing procedures are faster and simpler than before.
Table 1 Comparison of RFID tags and barcodes
Libraries can also provide automated pre-loan withdrawal procedures and self-service book return systems. The automated pre-borrowed book withdrawal system will help readers to directly withdraw their pre-borrowed books by putting their library cards at the borrowing point, which means that pre-borrowed books can be withdrawn 24 hours a day.
Automated book return systems can be used both indoors and outdoors by placing book drop boxes. Readers can receive receipts containing the date, time, and content of the returned books through the self-service book return system.
2.4.2 Sorting function
Library staff collect and move books by accepting the use of RFID self-service book return system pulleys. The self-service book return system can not only provide self-service book return function, but also provide a certain range of sorting equipment to achieve the sorting work before the shelves. These features include: basic system books falling into two book return boxes (one for library re-listing, the other for other functions like mobile or other sorting functions; More advanced sorting systems □ sorted into multiple sorting bins with different functions, with different book return boxes for different sorting areas and pre-borrowed book collection areas.
2.4.3 Security performance
Through RFID-based security systems can improve security, a tag can be used as an identification number to confirm the target and can have a security anti-theft function, so it is more effective than barcodes and magnetic stripes.
RFID systems provide an additional layer of security by using the CKI or CKO of the anti-theft identification bit on the tag to close and open, while at the same time when RFID is integrated into an automated processing system, RFID will extensively improve the functions of self-service book lending, self-service book return, and anti-theft deterrence.
2.4.4 Inventory counting
Using an RFID system can be much faster than the original time-consuming barcode system, and a single inventory of a single rack only needs to be scanned very simply. According to the experience of the National Library of Singapore, after using the RFID system, the original one-week collection work that was closed for one week can now be completed in just one day. The RFID system can also find lost and misplaced data during the inventory process. By using RFID systems, libraries can now do frequent inventory work.
2.4.5 Improved liquidity
Under normal circumstances, after the implementation of RFID technology, the circulation of materials in libraries will be greatly improved in the case of the same number of librarians or fewer librarians. After using RFID technology, Singapore public libraries have strongly improved their borrowing capacity. In 2003, the Singapore Public Library was able to handle 31.7 million borrowings and 31.5 million users, while in 1997, RFID was not implemented When it comes to technology, it can only handle 22 million borrowed books and 12.5 million users.
1. Handheld, channel detection equipment
2. Self-service library borrowing device: